3572.16 - Aquaculture

Course number
General and inorganic chemistry (3512.16), organic chemistry (3513.17), earth, sea, and air (3101.15).
To provide a basic, thorough, and broad knowledge of fish and seaweed aquaculture from gametes into palatable and healthy food. Emphasis is placed on description of the environment, important steps in the aquaculture and slaughter process, fish health, aquaculture legislation, and aquaculture economics in biologically sustainable aquaculture.
Ocean, temperature, light, currents, waves, oxygen, modelling, selective breeding, recirculation (RAS), smolt production, marine aquaculture, salmon feed and nutrition, fish health and diseases, risks of infection, lice and delousing methods, cleaner fish, lumpfish, harvest, slaughter, processing, packing, transport, aquaculture cages and cage nets, pollution, environmental considerations, aquaculture economics and legislation, laws and regulations. Farming various seaweed species.
Learning and teaching approaches
Lectures, numerical exercises, essays, mind maps, and excursions to aquaculture locations.
Learning outcomes
Upon course completion, the student will be able to: o Explain bodies of water; T-S diagrams; measurements of temperature, current, and waves; current ellipses; tides; threshold fjords; the Coriolis effect; and amphidromic points. o Discuss salinity, ions in sea water, density, light conditions, and photosynthetic active radiation. o Talk about roe production in the past and present, genetically selected roe, lines, families, and degree days. o Detail breeding methods, DNA-based sex selection, QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) versus GS (Genomic Selection), QTL-IPN (Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis) research, PIT tagging (Passive Integrated Transponder tagging), smoltification, photoperiod control, and stripping. o Discuss procedures in current smolt production and selective breeding. Explain genomic selection (GS). o Explain yolk-sac fry, early feeding, flow speed, water requirements, water quality, and light. o Describe prophylactic measures, vaccination, transport of fry, smoltification process: morphological, physiological, hormonal, and behavioural changes. Detail the regulation of the smoltification process. o Explain environmental pollution of the seabed, feed conversion ratio, residual feed and faeces, antibiotics, delousing chemicals, copper, zinc, organic chemicals, fjord carrying capacity, oxygen saturation, red-ox potential, pH, ammonia, silicates, phosphates, sulphates, and methane on the seabed. o Talk about dispersion and settling velocity of residual feed and faeces, organic carbon in sediment, bioturbation, resuspension, eutrophication, sensory examinations, and states of pollution. o Describe concisely various aquaculture cages and cage requirements, nets, anchorages, and anchors in relation to current conditions. o Explain weather, wind, and current conditions in and around aquaculture farms and the effect on oxygen concentration in the sea. o Describe oxygen turnover in aquaculture farms, fish oxygen requirements, and the behaviour of stressed and non-stressed fish. o Talk about computer simulations of equipment and currents separately and combined. Discuss the importance of avoiding biofouling on nets. o Describe important biological components in sustainable marine salmon farming. o Talk about salmon harvesting, slaughter, processing, and packing. Explain rigor mortis, stress, gaping, bleeding methods, fillet production, hygiene, and quality manual. o Talk about seaweeds, species of seaweeds, microalgae, macroalgae, seaweed reproduction, seaweed production, biorefinement, product development, and IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture). o Discuss salmon feed, nutrients, digestion, digestive tract, and active and passive transport across cell membranes. o Explain fish health, diseases, fungi, viruses, bacteria, protozoa, infections and transmission thereof, logistics of dead fish and prevention of diseases. o Talk about salmon lice, procreation, indirect and direct effects on salmon, stress, immune system, osmoregulation, appetite, mortality, infection, delousing methods, cleaner fish, and lumpfish. o Explain water recycling (RAS), key numbers for aquaculture tanks, ammonia, nitrification, denitrification, beneficial bacteria, ozone treatment, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), disinfecting UV radiation and CO2. o Explain aquaculture laws, regulations, statutes, aquaculture politics, aquaculture farms, aquaculture locations, aquaculture permit, and public supervision departments. o Talk about aquaculture economics, loans, investments, markets, sales, main key figures as for instance EBIT (Earnings Before Interest and Taxes), EBITDA (Earnings Before Interests and Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization), NIBD (Net Interest Bearing Debt) /EBITDA, finances, results, taxes, efficiency, biological risks, insurance, and organic growth.
Assessment method
25-minute oral examination in an evaluated course report. A prerequisite for being allowed to take the exam is that all course assignments have been handed in on time for evaluation and have been deemed as passed.
Marking scale
Scientific articles, chapters from books on aquaculture and various kinds of notes.
Hóraldur Joensen