3813.22 - Human Physiology

Course number
Human Physiology
Students following single courses need to have sufficient background in biochemistry, like: 3514 Biochemistry
To give the students an overview of human structure and physiology at the cellular, histological and organ system level. To give the students knowledge of the physiological regulatory mechanisms controlling the human body
Overview of structure and functions of organs and organ systems. Description of physiological regulatory mechanisms. Homeostasis; Nervous system; Sensory Physiology; Endocrine System; Immun System; Respiratory Physiology; Reproduction; Digestion and Absorption of Food; The Kidney’s; Cardiovascular Physiology; Muscle Physiology; Exercise Physiology.
Learning and teaching approaches
Lectures and problem solving.
Learning outcomes
On completion of the course, the successful student should be able to: o Describe the organisation of the human body in organs, tissues, fluids, and cells, as well, as how homeostatic regulation occurs. o Discuss the structure and function of different types of cells in the nervous system and analyse the communication between cells (resting membrane potential, action potential), as well as utilise relevant equations such as Nernst and Goldman-Hodgkin-Kaz. o Describe and analyse electrical and chemical synapses, demonstrate an understanding of the function of different transmitter substances. o Describe the structure of the nervous system and analyse the structure and function of the different components of the nervous system. o Logically discuss different types of receptors and analyse their function and interaction with different cells. o Describe in detail the human sensory system as well as different types of senses. o Describe the structure of different types of muscles and analyse their function (excitation-contraction coupling), as well as the biochemical processes during muscle contraction. o Discuss the human movement system, and the physiological mechanisms that determine exercise performance in skeletal muscles. o Demonstrate knowledge on the human pulmonary system in relation to structure and function, and analyse thoroughly the regulation of ventilation. o Perform simple calculations of respiratory parameters, analyse respiratory data from an exercise test and assess its physiological significance. o Analyse how the pulmonary ventilation is regulated at rest and during exercise and how the ventilatory responses influences the systemic acid-base homeostasis. o Describe in detail the structure of the heart, blood and different types of blood vessels. Moreover, describe the function of the heart and different types of blood vessels and blood cells. o Logically discuss the regulation of the cardiac output and blood flow, as well as health and pathology of the cardiovascular system. o Demonstrate calculations of cardiovascular parameters at rest and during exercise. o Describe the structure of the kidneys and discuss their function in detail. Demonstrate kidney function applying simple calculations. o Explain and analyse the regulation of the ion and water homeostasis. o Describe the structure and function of the digestive system and analyse the special characteristics of different parts of the digestive system, as well as the catabolic processes in the digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Describe the transport of different molecules from the digestive system to the blood. o Analyse the regulation of the digestion of different macromolecules and describe in detail the metabolic processes in the human body. o Discuss the endocrinology of the human body, as well as the function and regulation of different hormones. o Describe in detail the structure and function of the male and female reproductive system. Explain in detail the process of meiosis and mitosis, as well as the regulation of spermatosis and the menstruation cycle. o Logically describe the human immune system and analyse the function and regulation of the different cells in the immune system. o Describe the development of the human body to physical activity, and the responses to exercise training.
Assessment method
Four-hour written examination. No auxiliary materials allowed.
Marking scale
Vander's Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. Eric P. Widmaier, Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang. (2016) 14 edition. McGraw‐Hill Higher Education. ISBN‐978-1-259-25110-8. Scientific articles.
Jónrit Halling